Definitions of Evaluation Probably the most frequently given definition is: Types of Evaluation There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Debates that rage within the evaluation profession -- and they do rage -- are generally battles between these different strategists, with each claiming the superiority of their position.
Four major groups of evaluation strategies are discussed here. How well is the program or technology delivered?
But the need to improve, update and adapt these methods to changing circumstances means that methodological research and development needs to have a major place in evaluation work.
Here we introduce the idea of evaluation and some of the major terms and issues in the field. Where is the problem and how big or serious is it? What was the effectiveness of the program or technology?
What is the net impact of the program? Two management-oriented systems models were originated by evaluators: For instance, one might say: Qualitative and quantitative monitoring techniques, the use of management information systems, and implementation assessment would be appropriate methodologies here.
One would choose from observational and correlational methods for demonstrating whether desired effects occurred, and quasi-experimental and experimental designs for determining whether observed effects can reasonably be attributed to the intervention and not to other sources.
They emphasize the importance of observation, the need to retain the phenomenological quality of the evaluation context, and the value of subjective human interpretation in the evaluation process.
Better perhaps is a definition that emphasizes the information-processing and feedback functions of evaluation. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much.
These are considered within the framework of formative and summative evaluation as presented above. The most common method used here is "needs assessment" which can include: Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.
But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one -- studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise.Scientific-experimental models are probably the most historically dominant evaluation strategies.
Taking their values and methods from the sciences -- especially the social sciences -- they prioritize on the desirability of impartiality, accuracy, objectivity and the validity of the information generated.
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Specialist adolescent musicians’ role models: Whom do they admire and why? Antonia Ivaldi Department of Psychology, Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK [email protected] ABSTRACT Background Previous research into adolescents’ musical role models has.
Results indicated that the majority of adolescents identified famous figures as role models, most of whom were male and singers of popular musical styles. The three main reasons for admiring a role model were: (1) dedication; (2) popular image; and (3) ability.
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Is recognized .Download