The liquid can then be recycled for the next washing process or treated in the waste water treatment process. In order to confirm the behavior of chlorine during combustion, laboratory-scale hydrothermal experiments of polyvinyl chloride PVC and alkaline mixtures KOH were conducted using the autoclave shown in Figure 2.
However, there are some limitations in the method, especially for MSW containing impregnated plastics which could contain chlorine originated from polyvinyl chloride PVC and inorganic chlorine in the form of salt.
An additional washing process was conducted to separate the inorganic chlorine from the product, so that a chlorine-free solid fuel product from can be obtained MSW.
It is obviously that inorganic chlorine removal is significantly enhanced by increasing the water to product ratio and the washing temperature, so these two parameters are the main determinants of the washing performance.
In developing countries, garbage is mostly disposed of in landfills by the open dumping method and this creates numerous environmental problems.
The chlorine content in the exhaust gas was determined by capturing the exhaust gas during combustion using three mL impinger units containing distilled water. In order to confirm the reproducibility, three runs were carried out for each sample. The recent global trend is to prohibit or limit waste land-filling, but the citizenry does not want to increase the number of waste incineration plants in their respective countries.
Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter, there were increases of the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product after the washing process. A sample of Indonesian coal was also studied for comparison of the combustion characteristics with the hydrothermal treatment product before and after the washing process.
Introduction Humans require a continual supply of energy, both for their present and future living needs. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature.
After finishing, the ash was collected for further chlorine content analysis. These washed products were used in order to compare the chlorine distribution after combustion of hydrothermally-treated products before and after the washing process.
This particular case has stimulated the search for other alternative and at the same time an environmentally friendly energy resources. Organic and inorganic chlorine contents were obtained by washing of the dried solid product with distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration. It should be noted that the current global energy consumption shows an increasing trend, driven strongly by the recent economic recovery.
After the hydrothermal treatment however, the organic chlorine in the sample was reduced and converted into inorganic water soluble chlorine [ 13 ] because of the combination of dehydrochlorination effect and the reaction with the alkaline content in MSW to produce salt [ 14 ].
Water washing process combined with the hydrothermal process. Since it was necessary to identify the washing parameters which could influence the efficiency of the chlorine-free solid fuel production, a series of experiments were performed to find the optimum ratio of the water and product, the washing time, the washing speed and the washing temperature to remove the inorganic chlorine [ 15 ].
To validate the necessity of the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment, an additional study is needed to determine the chlorine contents in the exhaust gas and in the ash after the combustion process in order to confirm that the process of washing the hydrothermal treatment product can reduce the exhaust gas pollution by chlorine.
In this study, a comparison of chlorine behavior during combustion of hydrothermally treated MSW before and after the washing process is presented. Material Condition Two series of experiments to obtain product samples from real MSW using the commercial-scale plant 3 m3 reactor and alkaline-added PVCs using the laboratory-scale hydrothermal treatment were performed.
For the ultimate analysis of these solid products before and after the washing process, a LECO CHNS organic elemental analyzer was used to measure the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents in the product and the total chlorine content was measured using the J-Science HSU Chlorine Measurement and Material Analysis The chlorine content analysis of product before and after the washing process for MSW and KOH-added PVC as raw material were differentiated by the chlorine type organic or inorganic and the form after combustion ash or exhaust gas.
Using technological improvements, waste could provide advantages and economical value due to its potential utilization as a fuel.
Economic growth is creating another problem resulting from the growth effect of population and industries. The ash content in the product was reduced from Results and Discussion 4. The inorganic chlorine can then be easily removed by a water washing process to reduce the total chlorine content in the products [ 15 ].
These results suggest that additional alkali is needed in the hydrothermal processing of plastic waste to reduce the corrosion due to HCl generation.
This social awareness provides a big opportunity for solid fuel production from MSW. The experiments were conducted in a mL autoclave reactor, equipped with a rotor, a stirrer and a heater as shown in Figure 2.
Chlorine is released as hydrogen chloride during the heat treatment, both in an inert atmosphere and also under combustion conditions [ 56 ]. In order to ensure that all inorganic chlorine was already removed from the solid product, the filtered products were washed again and filtered twice.
Chlorine is an element that may cause environmental and technical problems during combustion such as corrosion of the boiler tubes, the accumulation of deposits, and the reduced melting point of the ash, largely due to the low melting points of alkali chlorides and some metallic chlorides.
Hydrothermal Treatment and Washing Process Hydrothermal treatment is a technology to produce dried, uniform solid fuel or organic fertilizer by converting unutilized bio-resources such as food residues, sewage sludges, animal manures, agricultural residues, high moisture content solid wastes and MSW using low energy consumption [ 16 ].
Water to product ratio. Preliminary experimental results showed that the total chlorine content of raw MSW was about 1.An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW) into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed.
After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free.
municipal solid waste (MSW), and high water content biomass, such as sewage sludge and animal manure as Hydrothermal Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste and d Fuel and Liquid Fertilizer Kunio Yoshikawa Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Japan Environmental Technology Achievement Award in †Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Main Street, HTC of waste materials may require less solids processing/ treatment (such as mechanical dewatering of biosolids1,19)and in landfills), food waste, mixed municipal solid waste (MSW), and anaerobic digestion (AD) waste.
Discarded office. Hydrothermal Processing Of Municipal Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. Municipal Solid waste are gabages, sludge or refuse gotten form a waste water treatment plant, air.
Coal alternative fuel production from municipal solid wastes employing hydrothermal treatment. An experimental study of the conversion of Japanese municipal solid waste (MSW) to solid fuel by using an innovative hydrothermal treatment has been performed.
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